Facial expression of pain

Journal of Nonverbal Behavior. A number of investigators have reported that observers can reliably distinguish facial expressions of pain. The purpose of this study was to describe the consistencies which might exist in facial behavior shown during pain. Sixteen candid photographs showing faces of individuals in situations associated with intense, acute pain e. A characteristic pain expression—brow lowering with skin drawn in tightly around closed eyes, accompanied by a horizontally-stretched, open mouth, often with deepening of the nasolabial furrow—occurred consistently in this series. Unable to display preview.
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Facial expression in pain: A study of candid photographs

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Facial expression in pain: A study of candid photographs | SpringerLink

A series of adults answered a questionnaire on personal and professional data and then they analyzed for 1 minute each of the 3 sets of pictures to answer the following question: "In which picture of this set do you think that the baby is feeling pain? However, the health professional group achieved a lower level of recognition of neonatal facial expressions of pain. Factors related to the personal and professional characteristics of the adults interviewed probably contributed to this result. Since the s, several researchers 1 pp 2 , 3 systematically analyzed the facial anatomical features of adults to evaluate emotional states. These alterations in newborn facial expression in response to pain have been observed in full-term newborns, 6 , 7 , 10 premature newborns 7 , 9 , 11 - 14 and preverbal infants, 8 , 15 when the analysis was done using videotape 6 , 8 , 9 , 11 , 12 , 14 , 15 and at the bedside. Thus, the analysis of facial expression of newborns can be regarded as a tool that can be coded, quantified, and used as an indicator of behavior toward pain. It appears to provide valid, sensitive, and specific information relating to the nature and intensity of the pain and to promote effective communication between the newborn and the caregiver.
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Reading Pain in a Human Face

Background Facial expression is often used to evaluate pain in noncommunicative critically ill patients. Objectives To describe facial behavior during endotracheal suctioning, determine facial behaviors that characterize the pain response, and describe the effect of patient factors on facial behavior during pain response. Methods Fifty noncommunicative patients receiving mechanical ventilation were video recorded during 2 phases rest and endotracheal suctioning. Pain ratings were gathered by using the Behavioral Pain Scale.
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Factors that interfere in the recognition of the neonatal facial expression of pain by adults. Balda I ; Maria Fernanda B. Adults' demographic and socio-economical characteristics were surveyed.
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